Published at Saturday, April 06th, 2019 - 01:13:54 AM. Type of airline. By Adelle Jäger.
One argument is that positive externalities such as higher growth due to global mobility outweigh the microeconomic losses and justify continuing government intervention. A historically high level of government intervention in the airline industry can be seen as part of a wider political consensus on strategic forms of transport such as highways and railways both of which receive public funding in most parts of the world. Although many countries continue to operate state-owned or parastatal airlines many large airlines today are privately owned and are therefore governed by microeconomic principles to maximize shareholder profit.
A more recent development is the airline alliance which became prevalent in the late 1990s. These alliances can act as virtual mergers to get around government restrictions. Alliances of airlines such as Star Alliance Oneworld and SkyTeam coordinate their passenger service programs (such as lounges and frequent-flyer programs) offer special interline tickets and often engage in extensive codesharing (sometimes systemwide). These are increasingly integrated business combinations—sometimes including cross-equity arrangements—in which products service standards schedules and airport facilities are standardized and combined for higher efficiency. One of the first airlines to start an alliance with another airline was KLM who partnered with Northwest Airlines. Both airlines later entered the SkyTeam alliance after the fusion of KLM and Air France in 2004.
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